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  Traditional views of females being largely responsible for gathering food may be too simplistic



  Women’s reputation as nurturing homebodies who left warfare to men in long-ago societies is under attack.Skeletal evidence from hunter-gatherers in what’s now California and from herders in Mongolia suggests that women warriors once existed in those populations.


  Two research teams had planned to present these findings April 17 at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.That meeting was canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic.The results have been provided to Science News by the scientists.

  兩個研究小組計劃于4月17日在美國物理人類學家協會的年會上提出這些發現。由于冠狀病毒大流行,那次會議被取消了。研究結果已由科學家提供給《Science News》。

  Sexual divisions of labor characterized ancient societies,but were not as rigidly enforced as has often been assumed,the new studies suggest.“The traditional view[in anthropology]of‘man the hunter and woman the gatherer’is likely flawed and overly simplistic,”says forensic anthropologist Marin Pilloud of the University of Nevada,Reno.

  新的研究表明,古代社會是按性別進行勞動分工,但并不像人們通常認為的那樣嚴格執行。內華達大學里諾分校的法醫人類學家Marin Pilloud說,“在人類學中認為男人是獵人,女人是采集者的傳統觀點可能是有缺陷的,而且過于簡單。”

  Consider hunter-gatherers who lived in central California as early as around 5,000 years ago as well as more recent Native Americans groups in that region,such as Coast Miwok and Yana.Some archaeological evidence as well as historical accounts and 20th century anthropologists’descriptions generally portray men in those groups as hunters,fishers and fighters in tribal feuds and conflicts with outside armies.Women are presented as focused on gathering and preparing plant foods,weaving and child care.

  想想早在5000年前就生活在加利福尼亞中部的狩獵采集者,以及最近在該地區的土著人群體,如Coast Miwok和Yana。一些考古證據和歷史記載(包括20世紀人類學家的描述)通常將這些群體中的男人定義為獵人、漁民以及參與部落爭斗或者外部沖突的戰士。女性則專注于采集,準備植物性食物,編織和照顧孩子。

  But skeletons of 128 of those hunter-gatherer women display damage from arrows and sharp objects such as knives comparable to skeletal injuries of 289 presumed male warriors,Pilloud and her colleagues found.Whether those women fought alongside men or carried out other dangerous battle duties,such as sneaking up on enemies to cut their bow strings,can’t be determined from their bones.Individuals in this sample came from 19 Native American groups in central California,and had lived in any of five time periods between around 5,000 and 200 years ago.<紐約時報中英文網 http://www.738231.buzz/>


  Evidence analyzed by Pilloud’s team was part of a database of excavated skeletal remains from more than 18,000 central California hunter-gatherers assembled by study coauthor Al Schwitalla of Millennia Archaeological Consulting in Sacramento.A 2014 study directed by Schwitalla determined that 10.7 percent of males in the database had suffered injuries from sharp objects and projectile points,versus 4.5 percent of females.The new study finds similar patterns of those injuries on the skeletons of men and women.

  Pilloud研究小組分析的證據是來自加利福尼亞中部超過18000個狩獵采集者的骨骼遺骸數據庫的一部分(由來自薩克拉門托考古咨詢中心的研究合作者Al Schwitalla收集)。2014年由Schwitalla指導的一項研究確定,數據庫中10.7%的男性遭受過尖銳物體和拋射點的傷害,而女性只有4.5%。新的研究發現,男性和女性的骨骼上也有類似的損傷。

  In wars between Native American tribes in California,women were often killed in surprise raids and other attacks,which may partly explain female injuries reported in the new study,says biological anthropologist Patricia Lambert of Utah State University in Logan.

  洛根猶他州立大學的生物人類學家Patricia Lambert說,在加利福尼亞的印第安部落之間的戰爭中,女性經常在突襲和其他襲擊中被殺,這可能是這項新研究報告中女性受傷的部分原因。
紐約時報中英文網 http://www.738231.buzz/

  Some women may have fought in battles,either to defend their children or village or as warriors,suggests Lambert,who was not part of Pilloud’s team.But further evidence of female fighters,such as Native American women in California buried with weapons and other battle artifacts,is needed,she says.


  A second skeletal analysis suggests that nomadic herders in ancient Mongolia,bordering northern China,trained some women to be warriors during a time of political turbulence and frequent conflicts known as the Xianbei period,says anthropologist Christine Lee of California State University,Los Angeles.The Xianbei period ran from 147 to 552.

  洛杉磯加州州立大學的人類學家Christine Lee說,第二份骨骼分析表明,與中國北部接壤的古蒙古游牧民族在政治動蕩和沖突頻繁的鮮卑時期會訓練一些婦女成為戰士。鮮卑時期是從147年到552年。

  In a study of nine individuals buried in a high-status Mongolian tomb from the Xianbei period,conducted by Lee and Cal State colleague Yahaira Gonzalez,two of three women and all six men displayed signs of having ridden horses in combat.

  Lee和加州州立大學的同事Yahaira Gonzalez對鮮卑時期蒙古古墓中埋葬的九個人進行了研究,發現三名女性中的兩名和六名男性都有在戰斗中騎馬的跡象。


  That conclusion rests on three lines of evidence:bone alterations caused by frequent horse riding and damage from falls off horses;upper-body signatures of having regularly used bows to shoot arrows,including alterations of spots where shoulder and chest muscles attach to bone;and arrowhead injuries to the face and head.Because the tomb was previously looted,any war-related objects that may have been interred with the bodies are gone.


  In western Asia,archaeologists have uncovered potential graves of women warriors that include weapons and war gear.


  By around 900,written documents refer to Mongolian women who fought in wars,held political power and had diplomatic credentials,Lee says.Freedom for Mongolian women to pursue a variety of activities goes back at least to the Xianbei period,she suspects.


  Lee now plans to look for skeletal evidence of female warriors in more Mongolian tombs dating to as early as around 2,200 years ago.


  “Badass women may go back a long way in northern Asian nomadic groups,”she says.



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