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  America's obsession with big cats is all the rage,thanks to the mass devouring under quarantine of Netflix's seven-part documentary series Tiger King.This wild saga about Oklahoma zookeeper Joe Exotic,his several husbands,and his violent feuding with animal rights groups has been jaw-droppingly sensational viewing.

  美國人民對老虎的喜愛是全民性的,這都要歸功于Netflix的七集系列紀錄片《虎王》。關于俄克拉荷馬州動物園飼養員喬·埃奇特(Joe Exotic),他的幾任丈夫以及他與動物權利組織的激烈爭執的令人震驚且轟動一時。

  Thanks to it,a once-forgotten 1981 film called Roar,sometimes dubbed“the most dangerous movie ever made”,has clawed everyone's attention back,with the distributor craftily re-releasing it to video-on-demand in the US.


  Eleven years in the making and costing a then-exorbitant$17 million,Roar was an insane project from inception right through its legendarily disastrous production in southern California,which involved 71 lions,26 tigers,a tigon,nine black panthers,10 cougars,two jaguars,four leopards,two elephants,six black swans,four Canada geese,four cranes,two peacocks,seven flamingos and a marabou stork.


  It took 34 years for the film to get a theatrical release in America.When it came out,in 2015,it was under the catchy tag-line:“No animals were harmed in the making of this film.70 members of the cast and crew were.”


  The idea was cooked up when Roar's two leads,Tippi Hedren and her husband,Noel Marshall,were on safari in Mozambique,where Hedren,in her post-Hitchcock afterglow,had shot the adventure film Satan's Harvest in 1969.During their travels,they came across an abandoned plantation house in Gorongoza National Park that had been overrun by lions.

  當《咆哮》的兩位負責人蒂比·海德莉(Tippi Hedren)和她的丈夫諾埃爾·馬歇爾(Noel Marshall)在莫桑比克的野生動物園里旅行觀光時,這個想法就被提了出來,Hedren在后希區柯克時代的余輝中拍攝了冒險電影《撒旦的豐收》,這是他們在1969年拍攝的。在他們的旅途中,他們在哥倫哥薩國家公園(Gorongoza National Park)偶然發現了一座被獅子占領的廢棄種植園。

  “They were sitting in the windows,they were going in and out of the doors,they were sitting on the verandas,”remembers Hedren.“It was such a unique thing to see,and we thought,‘For a movie,let us use the great cats as our stars.'”
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  Marshall,buoyed by his financial success as a co-producer on The Exorcist,became obsessed with bringing Roar to fruition.They began to purchase young lions–illegally–from zoos and circuses in the USA,and brought them up–in their Los Angeles home.


  Hedren's daughter Melanie Griffith–who would eventually co-star in Roar,be clawed across the face,and need plastic surgery–spent much of her adolescence cohabiting with this feline menagerie.In time,the family bought 40 acres of scrub in the Santa Clarita valley,and built a Portuguese-style two-storey ranch that would serve,not only as the compound for their growing zoo,but as the film's main set.

  海德莉的女兒梅蘭妮·格里菲斯(Melanie Griffith),在最后終于出演《咆哮》時,被動物抓到了臉上,需要整容手術才能恢復。她的青春期大部分時間都與這些貓科動物同居。最后這個家庭在圣克拉麗塔山谷購買了40英畝的灌木叢,并建造了一座葡萄牙風格的兩層牧場,不僅可以作為他們不斷發展的動物園的大院,而且可以作為電影的主要拍攝場地。


  Marshall had written a flexible script about a naturalist(played by himself)studying wildlife on a reserve in Tanzania(Santa Clarita with added cottonwoods).It was full of weird slapstick routines and moments of human peril not unlike The Birds,particularly when Hedren and her daughter arrive at the unattended ranch.


  And so the filming began,with a large crew including the Dutch cinematographer Jan de Bont,later to shoot Die Hard(1988)and direct Speed(1994)and Twister(1996).It quickly became clear that razzing up the lions to perform ferociously on camera was going to have some safety implications.
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  然后,拍攝就開始了,當時包括荷蘭攝影師揚·德·邦特(Jan de Bont)在內的一大批攝制組隨后拍攝了《虎膽龍威》(1988年),《生死時速》(1994年)和《龍卷風》(1996年)。拍攝前很快就明確了關于讓兇猛的獅子出演電影會帶來的一些安全隱患。

  Marshall,who saw the animals as family,would fling himself into their midst and roll around in take after take.One bit into his hand so deeply it caused a 50ft arterial spray and he needed immediate hospital treatment.Determined to get the wound on film,he asked a crew member to squirt some fake blood on top.Later,he would be bitten through the leg and dragged off-camera,narrowly avoiding the need for amputation.


  Hedren,when an elephant called Tembo tried to pick her up,slipped and broke her ankle on one of his tusks.And while de Bont was hiding in a camouflaged pit to get close-ups,a lioness detected movement and swiped down with her claws.This took the back of his scalp off,needing 220 stitches.


  Even amid this carnage,the shoot limped on.They were 95 per cent done with it when the worst flooding in years–19in of rain over 24 hours–hit the valley and a dam burst upriver.The facilities were devastated and many animals were swept away,or escaped,and–giving the lie to the movie's tag-line–were shot by local police.


  And still Marshall wouldn't give up the ghost.At staggering cost,he rebuilt the set and got the final footage.The MGM lab–where,under the lion logo,Roar was being processed–received over a million feet of film:double the amount processed for Gone with the Wind,and somewhere right up in the Apocalypse Now/Heaven's Gate ballpark.


  For foreign release,Roar was variously packaged as a suspense thriller,“a ferocious comedy”or a family adventure.It did quite well in Germany and Japan.But Marshall rejected all presales in America as insufficiently lucrative,and so it simply sat on the shelf unwatched.Marshall died in 2010;Hedren,who is still alive,set up the Shambala Preserve,an 80-acre wildcat habitat,in 1983.Roar is a monument to its makers'folly,and a film which can't hold a candle to its own mad production story.

  對于國外發行,《咆哮》被包裝成懸疑驚悚片,“兇猛的喜劇”或家庭冒險。它在德國和日本的表現很好。但是馬歇爾(Marshall)拒絕了在美國進行的所有預售業務,因為它們利潤不高,因此就被擱置了,沒有受到關注。馬歇爾于2010年去世;還在世的海德莉(Hedren)于1983年建立了占地80英畝的野貓棲息地香巴拉野生動物保護區(Shambala Preserve)?!杜叵肥瞧渲谱魅擞薮赖募o念碑,也是一部無法和其瘋狂的拍攝故事相比較的電影。


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