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2020年改善心理健康的5種科學方法

  2020年在分裂的政治、國際安全威脅和一系列仇恨犯罪中拉開帷幕,地球也受到了環境帶來的各種威脅。與此同時,每個人還承受著由就業、健康問題和生活方式的改變所帶來的壓力。難怪我們這么多人感到焦慮和沮喪。不過,人們可以采取得到科學證實的方法來改善自己的心理狀態。2020年,讓我們一起提升自己的心理健康水平!

  1.Practice optimism

  以樂觀的心態實踐


  The studies are positive:Looking on the bright side of life really is good for you.Optimists have a 35%less chance of having a heart attack or stroke,are more likely to eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly,have stronger immune systems;and even live longer.In fact,a 2019 study found people with the most positive outlook had the greatest odds of living to 85 or beyond.

  研究給出了正面的證明:關注生活的光明一面確實對人有好處。樂觀主義者心臟病發作或者中風的概率要比其他人低35%,同時他們更有可能攝入健康膳食,定期鍛煉,擁有更強大的免疫功能甚至擁有更長的壽命。事實上,2019年的一項研究發現,心態最樂觀的人壽命也是最長的,他們能夠活到85歲甚至以上。

  Now,let's get real:Being an optimist doesn't mean you ignore the stress of daily life.Who can do that?It simply means that when crummy things happen,you don't blame yourself unnecessarily.If you face a challenge or obstacle,you're more likely to see it as temporary or even positive,allowing you to learn and grow.

  我們來說點實際的做法:做一個樂觀主義者并不意味著忽略日常生活的壓力。誰又能做到呢?心態樂觀意味著在面對糟糕的事情時,你不要毫無必要地責備自己,你要能夠把自己所面對的挑戰或障礙看作是暫時的甚至是積極的事情,從而使自己在這些磨礪中學習和成長。

  Optimists also believe they have control over their fate and can create opportunities for good things to happen.

  樂觀主義者也相信他們可以掌控自己的命運,并不斷為好事的發生創造機會。

  Not a natural optimist?No worries.Science has shown you can train your brain to be more positive.Only about 25%of optimism is programmed by our genes anyway.

  不是天生的樂觀主義者?別擔心??茖W表明,人們可以通過思維訓練來變得更加積極樂觀。只有25%的樂觀因素根植于基因之中,(剩下的75%可以通過思維訓練來啟發)。

  According to a meta-analysis of existing studies,using the"Best Possible Self"technique is one of the most effective ways to increase your optimism.It's based on exercises that ask you to imagine yourself with all of your problems solved in a future where all of your life's goals were achieved.

  根據對于現有研究的元分析,“成就最好的自己”是提高樂觀程度最有效的方式之一。這種方式通過練習來讓人們想象自己處于一個解決了未來的所有問題并且實現了人生的一切追求的狀態中。

  meta-analysis:n.薈萃分析;元分析

  In one study,people who did this for only 15 minutes a week over an eight-week period became more positive and remained that way for nearly six months.What do you have to lose?

  在一項研究中,在八周時間內每周只花15分鐘實踐了這種方法的人變得更加積極,并保持這種狀態將近六個月。反正又沒有損失,何不嘗試一下?

  2.Start volunteering

  開始志愿之旅


  A prayer attributed to St.Francis of Assisi tell us,"It is in giving that we receive."

  阿西尼城的圣弗朗西斯的祈禱告訴我們:“我們所得到就是我們所給予的。”

  Turns out he was scientifically right.Studies have shown that putting the well-being of others before our own without expecting anything in return,or what is called being altruistic,stimulates the reward centers of the brain.Those feel-good chemicals flood our system,producing a sort of"helper's high."

  研究證明這是科學的論斷,將他人的福祉放在自我福祉之前,不求回報地為他人付出或是所謂的利他主義會刺激我們大腦的獎賞中樞。這些讓人感覺愉悅的化學物質會充盈人體系統,讓助人者獲得快樂與滿足。

  altruistic[?æltru??st?k]:adj.利他的;無私心的

  There are physical benefits,too:Studies show volunteering minimizes stress and improves depression.It can reduce the risk for cognitive impairment.It can even help us live longer.

  在精神受益之外身體也會受益:研究表明志愿活動會使壓力最小化并改善抑郁癥,從而降低認知損傷的風險,甚至有助于人們更長壽。

  Even if you have little time to offer,just the act of giving has been shown to improve our health,possibly by temporarily reducing our sense of pain.

  即使沒有時間做志愿活動,僅僅是付出也被證實能夠改善健康狀況,這可能是通過暫時降低痛苦感而實現的。

  A new study found that people who said they would donate money to help orphans were less sensitive to an electric shock than those who declined to give.In addition,the more helpful people thought their donation would be,the less pain they felt.

  一項新研究發現,那些愿意通過捐款來幫助孤兒的人與那些不愿捐款的人相比對電擊的敏感度更低。此外,人們如果認為自己的捐款幫助較大,所感受到的痛苦就更少。

  3.Be grateful

  感恩


  We heard a lot about the benefits of thankfulness in the last decade,and that is backed by science:Counting our blessings protects us against anxiety and depression and boosts optimism.Need more proof?Middle-schoolers who practiced gratitude exercises had less problem behavior.

  在過去的十年中,我們經常聽到關于感恩的各種益處,并得到了科學的支持:數算福分可以保護我們免受焦慮和沮喪的困擾并激發樂觀情緒。需要更多證據嗎?那些接受過感恩教育的中學生出現的行為問題更少。

  One of the best ways to make thankfulness a part of your life,say experts,is to keep a daily journal.Before you go to bed,jot down any positive experience you had that day,no matter how small.

  如專家們所說,使感恩成為你人生的一部分的最佳方式之一是記日記。在你睡覺前,簡單記下你在這一天遇到的各種正能量的經歷,不論大小。 紐約時報中英文網 http://www.738231.buzz

  If you do that for one minute each morning and evening,that sense of appreciation can broaden to others in your life and bolster optimism and better mental health.

  如果你每天早晚用一分鐘的時間來做這件事,這種感恩之情將擴展到你生活中的其他人身上,增強你的樂觀情緒,改善你的心理健康。

  4.Bolster your social connections

  維持你的社交網絡


  "People who are more socially connected to family,to friends,to community,are happier,they're physically healthier,and they live longer than people who are less well connected,"said Harvard psychiatrist Robert Waldinger in his popular TEDx talk.

  哈佛大學的精神病學家羅伯特·瓦爾丁格在頗為流行的TEDx演講中提到:“那些與家庭、朋友和社區聯系更加緊密的人更加開心、健康,壽命也更長。”

  The proof for this comes from the Harvard Study of Adult Development,which tracked 724 Boston men for more than 75 years and then began following more than 2,000 of their offspring and wives.

  哈佛的成人發展研究為此提供了證明,這一研究追蹤了724名波士頓人超過75年,然后還追蹤了超過2000名他們的后代和妻子。

  "The clearest message that we get from this 75-year study is this:Good relationships keep us happier and healthier.Period,"Waldinger said.

  瓦爾丁格說:“我們從這一長達75年的研究中所獲取的最明確的信息是:良好的社會關系能夠使人們更加快樂和健康。”

  And you don't have to be in a committed relationship or have scores of pals to get this benefit.Instead,it's the quality of the relationship that matters,he said.

  你不是非要婚姻穩定或是擁有眾多的好友才能獲取這一益處,事實上,社會關系的質量才是更重要的。

  "High-conflict marriages,for example,without much affection,turn out to be very bad for our health,perhaps worse than getting divorced,"Waldinger said."And living in the midst of good,warm relationships is protective."

  瓦爾丁格說:“例如,事實證明沖突迭起、缺乏感情的婚姻將對我們的健康非常有害,甚至可能比離婚所帶來的害處更大。而生活在美好、溫暖的關系中會對我們的健康起到保護作用。”

  5.Find your purpose

  找到你的目標


  Finding a sense of purpose contributes greatly to well-being and a longer,happier life,experts tell CNN.

  專家們對美國有線電視新聞網說,擁有目標感對于幸福和更長久、快樂的生活具有極為重要的意義。

  University of Pennsylvania psychologist Martin Seligman,who co-founded the field of positive psychology,says a sense of purpose will come from being part of something bigger than ourselves.He points to religion,family,and social causes as ways to increase meaning in our lives.

  賓夕法尼亞大學的心理學家馬丁·塞利格曼是積極心理學領域的共同創始人,他說目標感來源于成為比我們自己更加龐大的事物的一部分。他指出宗教、家庭和社會事業能夠使我們的生活更具意義。

  It doesn't have to be a traditional religion to be effective,according to Lord Richard Layard,one of Britain's most prominent economists and the author of several books on happiness.

  英國最杰出的經濟學家之一理查·萊亞德勛爵認為,并不一定非得是傳統宗教才能夠發揮作用。萊亞德曾出版過幾本關于幸福的書。

  In his landmark book,"Happiness:Lessons From a New Science,"he says spiritual practices can range from meditation to positive psychology to cognitive therapy.

  在他的里程碑式著作《快樂經濟學》中,他說精神實踐的囊括范圍很廣,包括冥想、積極心理學,以及認知療法等。

  "If your sole duty is to achieve the best for yourself,life becomes just too stressful,too lonely--you are set up to fail.Instead,you need to feel you exist for something larger,and that very thought takes off some of the pressure."

  “如果你唯一的職責就是成就最好的自己,那么你的人生就會壓力太大,太孤獨——你注定要失敗。相反,你需要覺得自己為一些更加高遠的事物而存在,這種思想可以解除一部分的壓力。”
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